It’s a very much delayed post, I blame it to rushing projects and trying to get 100% in God of War, which also leads me to studying Greek and Norse myths for several nights 🤷🏽♂️.
A little bit of preface
So you have done developing your app server and ready to deploy it into the wild. Surely you will need a publicly accessible hostname or public IP. You embark on a journey looking for hosting.
There are several of options:
- CDN, if your app server is just generating static things, and don’t need any persistence. Feasible, but rarely your choice.
- PaaS, Platform as a Service, which your provider will maintain the infrastructure for you (DB, actual server running your instance, DNS, security updates, etc).
- VPS, Virtual Private Server, where you own an instance of an OS of your choice, somewhere in the cloud. You maintain the OS, they maintain the physical server for you.
- Serverless, this thing is a trend, and usually provided by an IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), more than often associated with AWS Lambda. Not going into detail since we’re talking about reverse proxy in this episode.
If you have chosen PaaS, I congrats you, it’s the simplest method. Imagine a simple
git push heroku master deploys your entire app to Heroku without you doing anything (Okay, that may be exaggerating, but on a simple app, it does work magically, especially with Ruby on Rails).
Of course it does come with a price. Nothing worthy comes free, no? Other similar approach would be Google App Engine or AWS Elastic Beanstalk. You’ll be given a hostname, and the best thing about this is, TLS usually comes easily. And I doubt you will need any reverse proxy.
On the other end, if you’re using VPS (Digital Oceans, AWS EC2, Google Compute Engine), things can get a little bit more difficult compared to PaaS. Your instances should come with a public IP or publicly accessible domain, and you can use that obtain an SSL/TLS certificate. You might or might not need a reverse proxy, see the next section.
Now, if you’re anything like me, due to project constraint (there are clients that believe running an in-premise server is more secured than in the cloud), that cloud is not available to you, read on.
That’s not just a little bit of preface, boy.
Why do you need reverse proxy?
While reverse proxy comes with many other benefits, the reason you’re considering it is mostly that you have multiple servers to be served at a single public IP.
Reverse proxy acting as a front door of other servers, and much more.
In our recent project, we have multiple containerized app servers running under a Docker host, and all of them must be accessible from the public. We want them to be accessible via port 443. As you might have already known, only one process can take up a port at a time.
This is where reverse proxy comes in. We let our reverse proxy listens to port 443 (and 80), while the app servers listen to other ports, internally. We then instruct the reverse proxy to redirect the incoming requests to the appropriate server, following a set of rules.
For example, imagine we have 2 containers named ServerA and ServerB, listening at port 3001 and 3002 respectively. We then instruct the reverse proxy to
- redirect to http://localhost:3001 if the Host header of the incoming request is equal to server-a.example.com
- redirect to http://localhost:3002 if the path of the request is equal to /serverB
Here comes the main character, Træfik
Here’s a list of what we’re going to do.
- Bring up instances to mock the actual servers we have.
- Bring up Traefik and try to access its dashboard.
- Setup Traefik to redirect requests to the instances we created at step 1.
- Setup a DDNS to save us from expensive static IP.
- Setup TLS.
- Job’s done.
Create a file named
docker-compose.yml and paste the following in it.
version: '3' services: whoami: image: emilevauge/whoami ports: - "3001:80" nginx: image: nginx ports: - "3002:80"
docker-compose up, this will bring up the two instances.
Both of the containers listen to port 80 at their own containerized environment, while the Docker daemon acting as a kind of reverse proxy, redirect requests from the specific ports to the respective container.
Bringing up Traefik and setting the rules
Next, we want to start Traefik and have it redirect requests to the created containers, so that
whoami.localhost-> whoami container
nginx.localhost-> nginx container
On the same
version: '3' services: reverse-proxy: image: traefik command: --api --docker ports: - "80:80" - "8080:8080" volumes: - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock labels: - "traefik.frontend.rule=Host:dashboard.localhost" - "traefik.port=8080" whoami: image: emilevauge/whoami labels: - "traefik.frontend.rule=Host:whoami.localhost" nginx: image: nginx labels: - "traefik.frontend.rule=Host:nginx.localhost"
Traefik uses Docker labels to identify containers to be redirected to, the above labels should be self-explanatory.
traefik.port tells Traefik that the container is serving at port 8080 instead of the default port 80.
Traefik dashboard showing overall health info.
How to configure if a container exposes multiple ports?
In our case, we have an app server that exposes two different ports (for whatever reasonable reasons), we use the following labels.
# ... labels: - "traefik.public.frontend.rule=Host:public.localhost" - "traefik.public.port=8888" - "traefik.admin.frontend.rule=Host:admin.localhost" - "traefik.admin.port=8080"
Traefik calls this segment labels, which does the same thing, indicating that this container has multiple ports exposed.
Phew! We’ve come a long way, a little bit more ahead, let’s step on it!
Setting up DDNS (optional)
This is an optional step, most beneficial if you do not have a static IP. What a DDNS (Dynamic DNS) does is to update your entry in the DNS as soon as your public IP changes.
So instead of changing your the IP address in your code every time the public IP changes, you simply point it to a hostname such as your-service.your-domain.com.
For this, I’d recommend freemyip.com, which I found to be ethical and free, for now. Register your domain and you will be given a token and instructions to update your IP address when it changes.
A simple curl command into the crontab does the job of updating.
(crontab -l;echo "*/19 * * * * curl \"https://freemyip.com/update?token=YOUR_TOKEN&domain=YOUR_DOMAIN.freemyip.com\">/dev/null 2>&1")|crontab -
Now YOUR_DOMAIN.freemyip.com will always point to your server. The best thing is, it supports subdomains too! Be sure to check out their website for more info, such as how to point it back to a domain name you owned.
Now you can substitute your domain name into the Host rule in the above Traefik configurations.
With DDNS out of the way…
TLS at last!
If you already have a certificate procured from a CA, you can easily configure Traefik to use your certificate for encrypted connection.
First, you’ll need to modify the
docker-compose.yml to read a certain config file locally. In the volume section of traefik image, add an entry to read
# ... reverse-proxy: image: traefik # ... volumes: - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock - ./traefik.toml:/traefik.toml
Then at the same directory of
docker-compose.yml, create a file named
traefik.toml with the following content.
defaultEntryPoints = ["http", "https"] [entryPoints] [entryPoints.http] address = ":80" [entryPoints.http.redirect] entryPoint = "https" [entryPoints.https] address = ":443" [entryPoints.https.tls] [[entryPoints.https.tls.certificates]] certFile = "examples/traefik.crt" # Put your cert here keyFile = "examples/traefik.key" # And your key here
😐 I can’t get syntax highlighting for TOML.
Anyways, what the file does is to redirect all HTTP requests to HTTPS, with the certificates that you specified.
You can see more configurations at Traefik’s documentation.
Again, we’ll attach another file to Traefik, create an empty file named
acme.json and modify the
docker-compose.yml as below.
# ... reverse-proxy: image: traefik # ... volumes: - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock - ./traefik.toml:/traefik.toml - ./acme.json:/acme.json
Then in your
#... [acme] email = "email@example.com" storage = "acme.json" entryPoint = "https" caServer = "https://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory" [acme.httpChallenge] entryPoint = "http" [[acme.domains]] main = "YOUR_DOMAIN.freemyip.com" sans = [ "serverA.YOUR_DOMAIN.freemyip.com", "serverB.YOUR_DOMAIN.freemyip.com", ]
Make sure that YOUR_DOMAIN.freemyip.com can be resolved to your server running the Traefik instance, and that means doing any port forwarding if you’re behind any routers.
Ugh… It’s an overly long post, let’s highlight the important parts.
By using Docker labels, Traefik discovers which containers are under its care.
# Under the container that should be exposed labels: - "traefik.frontend.rule=Host:public.localhost" - "traefik.port=8888"
Let’s Encrypt configuration with Traefik
# traefik.toml [entryPoints] [entryPoints.http] address = ":80" [entryPoints.https] address = ":443" [entryPoints.https.tls] [acme] email = "firstname.lastname@example.org" storage = "acme.json" caServer = "https://acme-staging-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory" entryPoint = "https" [acme.httpChallenge] entryPoint = "http" [[acme.domains]] main = "local1.com" sans = ["test1.local1.com", "test2.local1.com"] [[acme.domains]] main = "local2.com" sans = ["test1.local2.com", "test2x.local2.com"] [[acme.domains]] main = "local3.com" [[acme.domains]] main = "local4.com"
Remember to remove
caServer for your production, by default it points to the production CA, which has a rate limit.
You can see more example configurations here.
That’s it! This post shall serve as a self reminder of all the roundabouts I’ve been to. Until next time.